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Dilution Refrigerators

Controlling Dilution Refrigerators in Python

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Dilution Refrigerators

Category Description A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.[1][2] The cooling power is provided by the heat of mixing of the helium-3 and helium-4 isotopes.

The dilution refrigerator was first proposed by Heinz London in the early 1950s, and was experimentally realized in 1964 in the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium at Leiden University.[3] The field of dilution refrigeration is reviewed by Zu et al.